A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by "a posteriori" methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a "Healthy pattern" and a "Western pattern". The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, the "Carbohydrate pattern", which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate (p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings.

Nutrients. 2016 Oct 12*** epublish ***

Roberto Fabiani, Liliana Minelli, Gaia Bertarelli, Silvia Bacci

Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Perugia 06123, Italy. ., Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia 06123, Italy. ., Department of Economics, University of Perugia, Perugia 06123, Italy. ., Department of Economics, University of Perugia, Perugia 06123, Italy. .