Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men worldwide. The relationships between PC and possible risk factors for PC cases (n=1181) and male controls (n=875) from the New South Wales (NSW) Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR) were examined in this study. The associations between PC risk and paternal history of PC, body mass index (BMI), medical conditions, sexual behaviour, balding pattern and puberty, after adjusting for age, income, region of birth, place of residence, and PSA testing, were examined. Adjusted risk of PC was higher for men with a paternal history of PC (OR=2.31; 95%CI: 1.70-3.14), personal history of prostatitis (OR=2.30; 95%CI: 1.44-3.70), benign prostatic hyperplasia (OR=2.29; 95%CI: 1.79-2.93), being overweight (vs. normal; OR=1.24; 95%CI: 0.99-1.55) or obese (vs. normal; OR=1.44; 95%CI: 1.09-1.89), having reported more than 7 sexual partners in a lifetime (vs. < 3 partners; OR=2.00; 95%CI: 1.49-2.68), and having reported more than 5 orgasms a month prior to PC diagnosis (vs. ≤3 orgasms; OR=1.59; 95%CI: 1.18-2.15). PC risk was lower for men whose timing of puberty was later than their peers (vs. same as peers; OR=0.75; 95%CI: 0.59-0.97), and a smaller risk reduction of was observed in men whose timing of puberty was earlier than their peers (vs. same as peers; OR=0.85; 95%CI: 0.61-1.17). No associations were found between PC risk and vertex balding, erectile function, acne, circumcision, vasectomy, asthma or diabetes. These results support a role for adult body size, sexual activity and adolescent sexual development in PC development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
International journal of cancer. 2016 Oct 14 [Epub ahead of print]
Visalini Nair-Shalliker, Sarsha Yap, Carlos Nunez, Sam Egger, Jennifer Rodger, Manish I Patel, Dianne L O'Connell, Freddy Sitas, Bruce K Armstrong, David P Smith
Cancer Research Division, Cancer Council New South Wales (NSW), Sydney, NSW, Australia. ., Cancer Research Division, Cancer Council New South Wales (NSW), Sydney, NSW, Australia., Sydney School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.