The prostanoid thromboxane (TX)A2 plays a fundamental role in vascular haemostasis and, more recently, is increasingly implicated in various neoplasms including in prostate, breast and bladder cancers, among others. In humans, TXA2 signals through the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the T prostanoid receptor (TP), two structurally related receptors that display both common, over-lapping but also distinct, isoform-specific physiologic roles. Consistent with this, while TPα and TPβ are encoded by the same gene, the TBXA2R, they are differentially expressed due to their transcriptional regulation by distinct promoters where promoter (Prm) 1 regulates TPα expression and Prm3 regulates TPβ. While the clinical evidence for the role of the TXA2-TP axis in neoplastic progression is increasing, few studies to date have investigated the role of the individual TPα/TPβ isoforms in human cancer or indeed in most other diseases in which the TXA2-TP axis is implicated. Focusing on TPα, this review details the current understanding of the factors regulating its expression and transcriptional regulation through Prm1, including in prostate and breast cancers. Emphasis is placed on the trans-acting transcriptional regulators that bind to cis-elements within the core and upstream regulatory regions of Prm1 under basal conditions and in response to cellular differentiation. A particular focus is placed on the role of the tumour suppressor Wilms’ tumour 1 in the regulation of TPα expression through Prm1 in megakaryoblastic cells of vascular origin and in prostate and breast carcinoma cells. Collectively, this review details current knowledge of the factors determining regulation of the TXA2-TPα axis and thereby provides a genetic basis for understanding the role of TXA2 in the progression of certain human cancers.
- The role of thromboxane in cancer
- Factors determining transcriptional regulation of TPα in platelet progenitor megakaryoblastic cells
- Role of Wilms’ tumour 1 in regulating TPα expression in prostate and breast cancer
- Conclusions and future perspectives
- Conflict of Interest
2016 Aug 12 [Epub]
B. Therese Kinsella