Loss of AZGP1 as a Superior Predictor of Relapse in Margin-Positive Localized Prostate Cancer.

Positive surgical margins (PSMs) in localized prostate cancer (PC) confer a two- to three-fold increased risk of biochemical relapse (BR). Absent/weak AZGP1 expression and Gleason grade ≥4 at the margin are each independent predictors of BR in patients with PSMs. Our study aimed to determine whether the biomarkers AZGP1 expression and Gleason grade at the site of a PSM are significant independent markers of biochemical and clinical relapse (CR) when modeled together and whether one of these biomarkers may be superior in its capacity to predict outcome.

A cohort of 275 consecutive patients with margin-positive localized PC following surgery were assessed for Gleason grade and AZGP1 expression at the PSM. BR-free survival was the primary end-point, while CR-free survival and PC-specific death were secondary endpoints. Kaplan-Meier Analysis and Cox Proportional Hazards Modeling were performed.

Absent AZGP1 expression was significantly associated with increased risk of BR (P = 0.001) and PC-specific death (P = 0.02). Gleason grade ≥4 at PSM was associated with BR (P = 0.02), CR (P = 0.003), and PC-specific death (P = 0.004). On multivariable analysis, absent AZGP1 expression remained an independent predictor of BR (HR 2.4, 95%CI 1.5-3.9, P < 0.001) when modeled with Gleason grade at margin (HR 1.3, 95%CI 0.9-1.9, P = 0.16), preoperative PSA (P = 0.002), seminal vesicle involvement (P = 0.002), extraprostatic extension (P = 0.001), Gleason score (P = 0.01), adjuvant treatment (P = 0.75), linear length of the involved margin (P = 0.001) and margin number (P = 0.09).

Absent AZGP1 expression is an independent predictor of BR in margin-positive localized PC and is associated with increased PC-specific mortality in a Phase II study. Absent AZGP1 expression was superior to Gleason grade at PSM in predicting relapse and should be incorporated into subsequent clinical trials of post-operative radiotherapy in men with margin-positive PC. Prostate © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The Prostate. 2016 Jul 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Hannah M Bruce, Phillip D Stricker, Ruta Gupta, Richard R Savdie, Anne-Maree Haynes, Kate L Mahon, Hui-Ming Lin, James G Kench, Lisa G Horvath

Division of Cancer Research, Garvan Institute of Medical Research/The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia., Division of Cancer Research, Garvan Institute of Medical Research/The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia., Division of Cancer Research, Garvan Institute of Medical Research/The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia., Department of Urology, St Vincent's Clinic, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia., Division of Cancer Research, Garvan Institute of Medical Research/The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia., Division of Cancer Research, Garvan Institute of Medical Research/The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia., Division of Cancer Research, Garvan Institute of Medical Research/The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia., Division of Cancer Research, Garvan Institute of Medical Research/The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia., Division of Cancer Research, Garvan Institute of Medical Research/The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia.