Determining intrafractional prostate motion using four dimensional ultrasound system.

In prostate radiotherapy, it is essential that the prostate position is within the planned volume during the treatment delivery. The aim of this study is to investigate whether intrafractional motion of the prostate is of clinical consequence, using a novel 4D autoscan ultrasound probe.

Ten prostate patients were ultrasound (US) scanned at the time of CT imaging and once a week during their course of radiotherapy treatment in an ethics-approved study, using the transperineal Clarity autoscan system (Clarity®, Elekta Inc., Stockholm, Sweden). At each US scanning session (fraction) the prostate was monitored for 2 to 2.5 min, a typical beam-on time to deliver a RapidArc® radiotherapy fraction. The patients were instructed to remain motionless in supine position throughout the US scans. They were also requested to comply with a bladder-filling protocol. In total, 51 monitoring curves were acquired. Data of the prostate motion in three orthogonal directions were analyzed. Finally, the BMI value was calculated to investigate correlation between BMI and the extent of prostate displacement.

The patients were cooperative, despite extra time for applying the TPUS scan. The mean (±1SD) of the maximal intrafractional displacements were [mm]; I(+)/S: (0.2 ± 0.9); L(+)/R: (-0.2 ± 0.8); and A(+)/P: (-0.2 ± 1.1), respectively. The largest displacement was 2.8 mm in the posterior direction. The percentage of fractions with displacements larger than 2.0 mm was 4 %, 2 %, and 10 % in the IS, LR, and AP directions, respectively. The mean of the maximal intrafractional Euclidean distance (3D vector) was 0.9 ± 0.6 mm. For 12 % of the fractions the maximal 3D vector displacements were larger than 2.0 mm. At only two fractions (4 %) displacements larger than 3.0 mm were observed. There was no correlation between BMI and the extent of the prostate displacement.

The prostate intrafractional displacement is of no clinically consequence for treatment times in the order of 2 - 2.5 min, which is typical for a RapidArc radiotherapy fraction. However, prostate motion should be considered for longer treatment times eg if applying conventional or IMRT radiotherapy.

BMC cancer. 2016 Jul 15*** epublish ***

Mariwan Baker, Claus F Behrens

Department of Oncology, Radiotherapy Research Unit, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark. ., Department of Oncology, Radiotherapy Research Unit, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark.