A review of clinical effects associated with metabolic syndrome and exercise in prostate cancer patients.

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), a primary treatment for locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer, is associated with the adverse effects on numerous physiologic parameters, including alterations in cardiometabolic variables that overlap with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). As MetS is an established risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and treatment for prostate cancer has been associated with the development of MetS, interventions targeting cardiometabolic factors have been investigated in prostate cancer patients to attenuate the detrimental effects of ADT. Much support exists for exercise interventions in improving MetS variables in insulin-resistant adults, but less evidence is available in men with prostate cancer. Regular exercise, when performed at appropriate intensities and volumes, can elicit improvements in ADT-related adverse effects, including MetS, and contributes to the growing body of literature supporting the role of exercise in cancer survivorship. This review (1) discusses the biologic inter-relationship between prostate cancer, ADT and MetS, (2) evaluates the current literature in support of exercise in targeting MetS and (3) describes the physiological mechanisms by which exercise may favorably alter MetS risk factors in prostate cancer patients on ADT.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, 28 June 2016; doi:10.1038/pcan.2016.25.

Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases. 2016 Jun 28 [Epub ahead of print]

J L Kiwata, T B Dorff, E T Schroeder, M E Gross, C M Dieli-Conwright

Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Center for Applied Molecular Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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