The role of lifestyle characteristics on prostate cancer progression in two active surveillance cohorts.

Although much research has examined the relationship between lifestyle and prostate cancer (PCa) risk, few studies focus on the relationship between lifestyle and PCa progression. The present study examines this relationship among men initially diagnosed with low- to intermediate-risk PCa and managed with active surveillance (AS).

Men enrolled in two separate AS programs were recruited for this study. Data regarding clinical, demographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected. Results were then compared between men whose disease remained low- to intermediate-risk and men whose disease progressed.

Demographic, clinical and physical characteristics were similar between comparative groups and cohorts, with the exception that age at the time of diagnosis and questionnaire was increased among men whose disease progressed. Lifestyle scores among men who remained low- to intermediate-risk were higher than those whose risk progressed; however, scores were only significant in one cohort on univariable analysis. On multivariable analysis, the only predictor of progression was age at diagnosis. Physical activity was consistently higher in both low risk groups, although this difference was insignificant. Consistent differences in other lifestyle variables were not observed.

Age remains an important predictor of PCa progression. Improving lifestyle characteristics among men initially managed with AS might help to reduce the risk of progression. Given the limitations of this study, more rigorous investigation is required to confirm whether lifestyle characteristics influence the progression of low- to intermediate-risk PCa.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, 28 June 2016; doi:10.1038/pcan.2016.22.

Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases. 2016 Jun 28 [Epub ahead of print]

A D Vandersluis, D E Guy, L H Klotz, N E Fleshner, A Kiss, C Parker, V Venkateswaran

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada., Evaluative Clinical Sciences, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada., Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, UK., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.