Emerging minimally invasive procedures for focal treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy amongst American men. However, the majority of prostate cancer diagnoses are of low risk, organ-confined disease. Many men elect to undergo definitive treatment, but may benefit from focal therapy to maintain continence and potency. This review reports the mechanism of action and outcomes of emerging focal therapies for prostate cancer. We report the mechanism of action of focal cryotherapy, high intensity focused ultrasound, focal laser ablation, and irreversible electroporation. In addition, we reviewed the largest studies available reporting rates of urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, biochemical recurrence-free survival (ASTRO), and post-operative adverse events for each procedure. Each treatment modality stated has a unique mechanism in the ablation of cancerous cells. Genito-urinary symptoms following these studies report incontinence and erectile dysfunction rates ranging from 0-15% and 0-53%, respectively. Biochemical disease-free survival was reported using the ASTRO definition. Some treatment modalities lack the necessary follow-up to determine effectiveness in cancer control. No focal therapy studies reported serious adverse events. These minimally invasive procedures are feasible in a clinical setting and show promising functional and disease control results with short to medium-term follow-up. However, each treatment requires additional robust prospective studies as well as its own unique domain to determine biochemical recurrence free survival to properly determine their role in treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer.

International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group. 2016 Jun 30 [Epub ahead of print]

David J Habibian, Aaron E Katz

a Department of Urology , Winthrop University Hospital , Mineola , New York , USA., a Department of Urology , Winthrop University Hospital , Mineola , New York , USA.