Collapsin response mediator protein-1 (CRMP1) acts as an invasion and metastasis suppressor of prostate cancer via its suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and remodeling of actin cytoskeleton organization.

The cancer cells can acquire migration and invasion capacities during the metastasis process through the developmental regulatory program epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), and through its reverse process mesenchymal-epithelial transition cancer cells can recolonize at distant metastatic sites. Among the multifaceted effects exerted by this program, reorganization of actin cytoskeleton is the key mechanical drive for the invasive properties gained by cancer cells. Collapsin response mediator protein-1 (CRMP1) is a cytosolic phosphoprotein and originally characterized as the mediator of semaphorin 3A signaling involved in axon differentiation during neural development. Here we report that CRMP1 can act as a suppressor of tumorigenicity and metastasis in prostate cancer cells. We demonstrated that CRMP1 exhibited a decreased expression pattern in high-grade prostate cancer tissues and many prostate cancer cell lines, and its downregulation in cancer cells was attributed to histone deacetylation and direct repression of its gene by the EMT regulator Snail. Functional analyses revealed that CRMP1 suppressed EMT in prostate cancer cells, as its knockdown could trigger EMT and enhance in vitro invasion capacity, whereas its overexpression could inhibit EMT and suppress both in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis capacities of prostate cancer cells. Moreover, CRMP1 overexpression could significantly confer resistance to EMT induced by Snail or transforming growth factor-β1 in prostatic epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells. Finally, we demonstrated that CRMP1 could associate with actin and WAVE1, an activator of actin nucleation complex Arp2/3, and also its knockdown could stabilize F-actin and trigger the formation of stress fibers in prostate cancer cells. Together, our study shows that CRMP1 acts an EMT and metastasis suppressor in prostate cancer cells via its regulation of actin polymerization and also suggests that targeting the CRMP1-actin signaling in actin organization could be a potential strategy for management of prostate cancer metastasis.Oncogene advance online publication, 20 June 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.227.

Oncogene. 2016 Jun 20 [Epub ahead of print]

G Cai, D Wu, Z Wang, Z Xu, K-B Wong, C-F Ng, F L Chan, S Yu

School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China., School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China., School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China., School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China., School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China., Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China., School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China., School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

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