Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk.

Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes.

Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease.

Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

World journal of urology. 2016 Jun 23 [Epub ahead of print]

Alison M Mondul, Stephanie J Weinstein, Demetrius Albanes

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive 6e342, Bethesda, MD, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive 6e342, Bethesda, MD, USA. .