Results of a number of studies demonstrate that the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in and of itself is an inadequate screening test. Today, one of the most pressing questions in prostate cancer medicine is how can screening be honed to identify those who have life-threatening disease and need aggressive treatment. A number of efforts are underway. One such effort is the assessment of men in the landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that has led to a prostate cancer risk calculator (PCPTRC), which is available online. PCPTRC version 2.0 predicts the probability of the diagnosis of no cancer, low-grade cancer, or high-grade cancer when variables such as PSA, age, race, family history, and physical findings are input. Modern biomarker development promises to provide tests with fewer false positives and improved ability to find high-grade cancers. Stockholm III (STHLM3) is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, prostate cancer diagnostic study assessing a combination of plasma protein biomarkers along with age, family history, previous biopsy, and prostate examination for prediction of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI incorporates anatomic and functional imaging to better characterize and predict future behavior of tumors within the prostate. After diagnosis of cancer, several genomic tests promise to better distinguish the cancers that need treatment versus those that need observation. Although the new technologies are promising, there is an urgent need for evaluation of these new tests in high-quality, large population-based studies. Until these technologies are proven, most professional organizations have evolved to a recommendation of informed or shared decision making in which there is a discussion between the doctor and patient.
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American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book / ASCO. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Meeting. 2016 [Epub]
Otis W Brawley, Ian M Thompson, Henrik Grönberg
From the American Cancer Society, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX; Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden., From the American Cancer Society, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX; Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden., From the American Cancer Society, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX; Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.