Efficacy and Feasibility of Low-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients.

In young patients with localized prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy is the treatment of choice in the general population. Radiotherapy, such as low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy, is a viable alternative as well. However, in transplant patients, irradiation is not proposed as often as it is in healthy adults because of the risk of post-radiation ureteral stenosis and gastrointestinal toxicity as the result of fragile tissue. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and feasibility of LDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients (RTRs).

Between May 2007 and December 2014, all patients who had undergone LDR brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer at our institution were retrospectively identified (n = 203). Of these patients, 2 had a history of renal transplantation. We reviewed all available clinical data retrospectively. One patient had a functioning graft and the other had re-started hemodialysis 7 years after the transplantation.

The mean time from renal transplantation to prostate cancer diagnosis was 16 years. The mean follow-up after seed implantation was 45 months. There were no peri-operative complications after seed implantation. The 2 patients remained free of prostate-specific antigen progression during the follow-up period. The renal function of the patient with a functioning graft, as measured by serum creatinine, was stable during and after the operation.

LDR brachytherapy is technically feasible and acceptable as a minimally invasive treatment in carefully selected RTRs with localized prostate cancer. This treatment should be considered a suitable option for RTRs with localized prostate cancer.

Transplantation proceedings. 2016 Apr [Epub]

J Iizuka, Yas Hashimoto, Yai Hashimoto, T Kondo, T Takagi, T Nozaki, T Shimizu, T Akimoto, H Ishida, K Karasawa, K Tanabe

Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan., Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan., Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan., Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan., Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan., Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan., Division of Radiation Oncology and Particle Therapy, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan., Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan., Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan., Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

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