The Present and Future of Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer: Proteomics, Genomics, and Immunology Advancements.

Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common form of cancer in men worldwide. Biomarkers have emerged as essential tools for treatment and assessment since the variability of disease behavior, the cost and diversity of treatments, and the related impairment of quality of life have given rise to a need for a personalized approach. High-throughput technology platforms in proteomics and genomics have accelerated the development of biomarkers. Furthermore, recent successes of several new agents in PC, including immunotherapy, have stimulated the search for predictors of response and resistance and have improved the understanding of the biological mechanisms at work. This review provides an overview of currently established biomarkers in PC, as well as a selection of the most promising biomarkers within these particular fields of development.

Biomarkers in cancer. 2016 May 05*** epublish ***

Pierre-Olivier Gaudreau, John Stagg, Denis Soulières, Fred Saad

Hematologist and Medical Oncologist, Notre-Dame Hospital, CHUM Research Center, Montreal, QC, Canada., Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacy, Cancer Axis-Montreal Cancer Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada., Hematologist and Medical Oncologist, Notre-Dame Hospital, CHUM Research Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.; Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, QC, Canada., Professor and Chief of Urology, CHUM-Pavillon R, Montreal, QC, Canada.