Acquisition with (11)C-choline and (18)F-fluorocholine PET/CT for patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate whether the choice between two radiotracers, (11)C-choline ((11)C-cho) and (18)F-fluorocholine ((18)F-FCH) for PET/CT, and different acquisition protocols contributed to detect metastases for patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. We searched in January 2016 in Pubmed and Embase for articles that had used radiolabeled choline PET/CT in restaging. The meta-analysis evaluated technical and clinical aspects. Across 18 articles 1 219 of 2 213 patients (54.9 %) had a positive radiolabeled PET/CT image. Mean of the mean/median restaging PSA levels was 3.6 ± 2.7 ng/mL (range 0.5-10.7 ng/mL). Six articles with (11)C-cho PET/CT had a radiation activity of 561 ± 122 MBq and it was 293 ± 47 MBq in 12 articles with (18)F-FCH PET/CT. The difference was significant (P = 0.007, t test). Uptake time was 5 min in articles with (11)C-cho PET/CT and it was 29 ± 24 min in articles with (18)F-FCH PET/CT. The difference was significant (P = 0.02, t test). Thereby the detection rates of metastatic sites in articles with (11)C-cho (30 ± 5 %) and (18)F-FCH (39 ± 5 %) did not differ significantly (P = 0.26, t test). In linear regression analyses of the articles, the radiation activity of (11)C-cho and (18)F-FCH was not significantly associated with the detection rate of metastatic sites (P = 0.75 and P = 0.60). Restaging with radiolabeled choline PET/CT detected metastatic sites for patients with biochemical recurrence and PSA levels of 1-10 ng/mL at clinically relevant level. The choice between the two choline radiotracers and different acquisition protocols had no significant impact on detection.

Annals of nuclear medicine. 2016 May 12 [Epub ahead of print]

Finn E von Eyben, Kalevi Kairemo

Center of Tobacco Control Research, 5230, Odense M, Denmark. ., University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.