Microvascular density and immunohistochemical expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in benign prostatic hyperplasia, high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer.

INTRODUCTION - The aim of our study was to determine and compare angiogenesis in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and prostate cancer (Pca). Moreover, we evaluated its role as a prognostic factor for Pca.

MATERIAL AND METHODS - We examined 39, 12 and 51 samples of BPH, HGPIN and Pca, respectively. Immunohistochemical methods were applied in order to evaluate the expression of VEGF and its receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2), while microvascular density (MVD) was determined using CD105. In Pca samples, we recorded stage, differentiation, perineural invasion, adjuvant radiotherapy and their correlation with angiogenesis.

RESULTS - 225 The expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 was significantly higher in Pca than compared to BPH (p <0.001, p <0.001 and p <0.001, respectively) and HGPIN (p <0.001, p <0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively), while there was no difference between BPH and HGPIN. MVD was higher in Pca compared to BPH (p <0.001) and HGPIN (p <0.01), while there was no difference between BPH and HGPIN. VEGF expression and MVD were significantly greater in Pca samples with poor differentiation (p = 0.044 and p = 0.038, respectively) and perineural invasion (p <0.001 and p = 0.019, respectively), while overexpression of VEGF was associated with advanced pathological stage (p = 0.047).

CONCLUSIONS - Angiogenesis is more prominent in Pca than in BPH and HGPIN, while there is no difference between BPH and HGPIN. Pharmaceutical inhibition of angiogenesis could be a valuable therapeutic option for Pca in the near future.

Central European journal of urology. 2016 Jan 25 [Epub]

Nikolaos Grivas, Anna Goussia, Dimitrios Stefanou, Dimitrios Giannakis

Hatzikosta General Hospital, Department of Urology, Ioannina, Greece., Department of Pathology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece., Department of Pathology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece., Department of Urology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece.