Research on prostate cancer has extensively advanced in the past decade, through an improved understanding for its genetic basis and risk-stratification. Molecular classification of prostate cancer into distinct subtypes and the recognition of new histologic entities promise the development of tailored-made management strategies of patients. Nowadays, various alternatives are available for clinical management of localized disease ranging from observation alone through radical prostatectomy. In patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, the approval of new drugs for the management of metastatic disease has offered promising results improving the survival of these patients. In this context, androgen receptors (AR) remain at the epicenter of prostate cancer research holding a prominent role in the biology and therapeutic regimens of the disease. As many of castration-resistant tumors retain hormone-responsiveness, AR is a clinical relevant, druggable target. However, it paradoxically remains neglected as a prostate cancer biomarker. The great advancements in prostate cancer preclinical and clinical research, imply further improvement in clinical and translational data, for patient selection and treatment optimization. For a precision medicine-guided clinical management of prostate cancer, AR evaluation has to be implemented in companion and complementary diagnostics, as discussed here. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of cellular biochemistry. 2016 Apr 22 [Epub ahead of print]
Vasiliki Pelekanou, Elias Castanas
Yale University, School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, New Haven, CT., University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, Heraklion, Greece.