The present study determined the relationship of male circumcision (MC) prevalence with prostatic carcinoma mortality rate in the 85 countries globally for which data on each were available. MC prevalence in different countries were obtained from a WHO report and allocated to WHO categories of 81%-100%, 20%-80%, and 0%-19%.
Prostatic carcinoma mortality data were from Globoscan, gross national income per capita as well as male life expectancy were from a World Bank report, and percentages of Jews and Muslims by country were from the Pew Research Institute and the North American Jewish Data Bank. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate prostatic carcinoma mortality rate ratios. Compared to countries with 81%-100% MC prevalence, prostatic carcinoma mortality rate was higher in those with MC prevalence of 0%-19% (adjusted OR [adjOR] =1.82; 95% CI 1.14, 2.91) and 20%-80% (adjOR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16, 2.78). Higher Muslim percentage (adjOR = 0.92 [95% CI 0.87, 0.98] for each 10% increase) and longer life expectancy (adjOR = 0.82 [95% CI 0.72, 0.93] for each 5 additional years) were associated with lower prostatic carcinoma mortality. Higher gross national income per capita (adjOR = 1.10 [95% CI 1.01, 1.20] for double this parameter) correlated with higher mortality. Compared with American countries, prostatic carcinoma mortality rate was similar in Eastern Mediterranean countries (adjOR = 1.02; 95% CI 0.58, 1.76), but was lower in European (adjOR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.50, 0.74) and Western Pacific countries (adjOR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.37, 0.78). Thus, prostate cancer mortality is significantly lower in countries in which MC prevalence exceeds 80%.
Asian J Androl. 2016 Jan-Feb;18(1):39-42. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.159713.
Countries with high circumcision prevalence have lower prostate cancer mortality.
Wachtel MS, Yang S, Morris BJ1.
School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.