Urologic cancer in China.

Cancer remains to be the second most common cause of death, and its incidence and mortality rates are increasing in China. According to the 2015 National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China, the incidence of bladder cancer and prostate cancer ranked sixth and seventh, respectively, in male cancers.

The majority of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is the key to improve prostate cancer survival in China. Radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy is the main treatment for localized prostate cancer, and a comprehensive therapy based on androgen deprivation therapy is the treatment for advanced disease. The most common histologic types of bladder cancer in China were urothelial carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. The majority of patients were diagnosed using white-light cystoscopy with biopsy. Fluorescence and narrow-band imaging cystoscopy had additional detection rates and are becoming more popular. Following Chinese guidelines, most non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with diagnostic transurethral resection and more than half of the muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with radical cystectomy. Due to the increased detection rate of kidney tumors by ultrasound in physical examination, the number of incidentally diagnosed renal cell carcinoma has increased. Localized kidney cancers are more and more often treated by nephron-sparing surgery. Radical nephrectomy is still the main treatment option for patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. Both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgeries have been used in big medical centers. Both testicular cancer and penile cancer have lower incidence levels than that in Europe. As we have an enormous population base, the absolute patient number is big. The diagnosis and treatment follows the Chinese guidelines. In China, both medical professionals and public should concern more on the early diagnosis, as there is not enough cancer prevention information available. Urologists should also take a more active role in educating the population.

Japanese journal of clinical oncology. 2016 Apr 04 [Epub ahead of print]

Cheng Pang, Youyan Guan, Hongbo Li, Wanqing Chen, Gang Zhu

Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Beijing Department of Urology, Beijing Hospital of the Ministry of Health, Beijing., Department of Urology, Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, National Cancer Center, Beijing., Department of Urology, Beijing United Family Hospital and clinics, Beijing., National Office for Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Center, Beijing, China Department of Urology, Beijing United Family Hospital and clinics, Beijing