The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of inter-fraction modifications of bladder during RT of prostate cancer on bladder dose surface maps (DSM). Eighteen patients treated with daily image-guided Tomotherapy and moderate hypofractionation (70-72.
8Gy at 2.5-2.6Gy/fr in 28 fractions and full bladder) were considered. Bladder contours were delineated on co-registered daily Megavoltage CT (MVCT) by a single observer and copied on the planning CT to generate dose-volume/surface histograms (DVH/DSH) and bladder DSMs. Discrepancies between planned and daily absorbed doses were analyzed through the average of individual systematic errors, the population systematic errors and the population random errors for the DVH/DSHs and DSMs. In total, 477 DVH/DSH and 472 DSM were available. DSH and DVH showed small population systematic errors of absolute surfaces (<3.4cm(2)) and volumes (<8.4cm(3)) at the highest doses. The dose to the posterior bladder base assessed on DSMs showed a mean systematic error below 1Gy, with population systematic and random errors within 4 and 3Gy, respectively. The region surrounding this area shows higher mean systematic errors (1-3Gy), population systematic (8-11Gy) and random (5-7Gy) errors. In conclusion, DVH/DSH and DSMs are quite stable with respect to inter-fraction variations in the high-dose region, within about 2cm from bladder base. Larger systematic variations occur in the anterior portion and cranially 2.5-3.5cm from the base. Results suggest that dose predictors related to the high dose area (including the trigone dose) are likely to be sufficiently reliable with respect to the expected variations due to variable bladder filling.
Physica medica : PM : an international journal devoted to the applications of physics to medicine and biology : official journal of the Italian Association of Biomedical Physics (AIFB). 2016 Apr 01 [Epub ahead of print]
F Palorini, A Botti, V Carillo, S Gianolini, I Improta, C Iotti, T Rancati, C Cozzarini, C Fiorino
Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Milan, Italy. Medical Physics, Arcispedale S. M. Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy., Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Milan, Italy., Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn, Switzerland., Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Milan, Italy., Radiotherapy, Arcispedale S. M. Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy., Prostate Cancer Program, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori IRCCS, Milan, Italy., Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Milan, Italy.