Quantitative Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging of Androgen Receptor and Prostate-Specific Antigen in Prostate Tissue Sections.

Androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are expressed in the prostate and are involved in prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to develop reliable protocols for reproducible quantification of AR and PSA in benign and malignant prostate tissue using time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) imaging techniques.

AR and PSA were detected with TRF in tissue microarrays from 91 PCa patients. p63/ alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) staining on consecutive sections was used to categorize tissue areas as benign or cancerous. Automated image analysis was used to quantify staining intensity. AR intensity was significantly higher in AMACR+ and lower in AMACR- cancer areas as compared with benign epithelium. The PSA intensity was significantly lower in cancer areas, particularly in AMACR- glands. The AR/PSA ratio varied significantly in the AMACR+ tumor cells as compared with benign glands. There was a trend of more rapid disease progression in patients with higher AR/PSA ratios in the AMACR- areas. This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing reproducible protocols for TRF imaging and automated image analysis to study the expression of AR and PSA in benign and malignant prostate. It also highlighted the differences in AR and PSA protein expression within AMACR- and AMACR+ cancer regions.

The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society. 2016 Mar 29 [Epub ahead of print]

Agnieszka Krzyzanowska, Giuseppe Lippolis, Leszek Helczynski, Aseem Anand, Mari Peltola, Kim Pettersson, Hans Lilja, Anders Bjartell

Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Urological Cancers, Lund University, Malmö. Sweden (AK, GL, AA, AB)University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Clinical Pathology, Malmö, Sweden (LH)Division of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (MP, KP)Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden (HL)Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Surgery (Urology), and Medicine (Genitourinary Oncology), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (HL)Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (HL)Department of Urology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (AB)  Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Urological Cancers, Lund University, Malmö. Sweden (AK, GL, AA, AB)University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Clinical Pathology, Malmö, Sweden (LH)Division of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (MP, KP)Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden (HL)Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Surgery (Urology), and Medicine (Genitourinary Oncology), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (HL)Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (HL)Department of Urology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (AB)., Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Urological Cancers, Lund University, Malmö. Sweden (AK, GL, AA, AB)University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Clinical Pathology, Malmö, Sweden (LH)Division of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (MP, KP)Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden (HL)Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Surgery (Urology), and Medicine (Genitourinary Oncology), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (HL)Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (HL)Department of Urology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (AB)., Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Urological Cancers, Lund University, Malmö. Sweden (AK, GL, AA, AB)University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Clinical Pathology, Malmö, Sweden (LH)Division of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (MP, KP)Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden (HL)Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Surgery (Urology), and Medicine (Genitourinary Oncology), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (HL)Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (HL)Department of Urology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (AB)., Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Urological Cancers, Lund University, Malmö. Sweden (AK, GL, AA, AB)University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Clinical Pathology, Malmö, Sweden (LH)Division of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (MP, KP)Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden (HL)Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Surgery (Urology), and Medicine (Genitourinary Oncology), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (HL)Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (HL)Department of Urology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (AB)., Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Urological Cancers, Lund University, Malmö. Sweden (AK, GL, AA, AB)University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Clinical Pathology, Malmö, Sweden (LH)Division of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (MP, KP)Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden (HL)Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Surgery (Urology), and Medicine (Genitourinary Oncology), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (HL)Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (HL)Department of Urology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (AB)., Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Urological Cancers, Lund University, Malmö. Sweden (AK, GL, AA, AB)University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Clinical Pathology, Malmö, Sweden (LH)Division of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (MP, KP)Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden (HL)Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Surgery (Urology), and Medicine (Genitourinary Oncology), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (HL)Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (HL)Department of Urology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (AB)., Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Urological Cancers, Lund University, Malmö. Sweden (AK, GL, AA, AB)University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Clinical Pathology, Malmö, Sweden (LH)Division of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (MP, KP)Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden (HL)Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Surgery (Urology), and Medicine (Genitourinary Oncology), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (HL)Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (HL)Department of Urology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (AB).