Apparent diffusion coefficient in the evaluation of side-specific extracapsular extension in prostate cancer: Development and external validation of a nomogram of clinical use.

OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study is to develop a nomogram of clinical utility based on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion-weighted imaging to predict extracapsular extension (ECE), and to validate externally its clinical utility.

MATERIALS AND METHODS - A total of 101 men (70 for the creation and 31 for external validation of the nomogram) underwent 1.5T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging followed by radical prostatectomy at 2 different institutions. ADC values were assessed for normal and pathological tissue. Clinical and pathological variables were investigated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses on 70 patients and logistic regression coefficients were used to develop our nomogram. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal ADC cut off for ECE. The nomogram was then externally validated on 31 patients at another institution.

RESULTS - At univariate analysis, the following variables were associated with ECE: pathological ADC and Gleason at biopsy (P<0.001) along with tumor volume and ECE at imaging (P = 0.003). At multivariate analysis, pathological ADC (P = 0.027), tumor volume (P = 0.011), and biopsy Gleason (P = 0.040) maintained their independent predictor status and were included in our nomogram together with normal ADC and ECE at imaging. Our nomogram showed a significant higher sensitivity (88%) than T2-weighted imaging (54%; P = 0.010). External validation resulted in an overall accuracy of 81%.

CONCLUSIONS - ADC represents a potential imaging biomarker to predict side-specific ECE in patients with prostate cancer. Our nomogram could improve the current diagnostic pathway and possibly the therapeutic approach for this disease.

Urologic oncology. 2016 Mar 15 [Epub ahead of print]

Francesco Giganti, Andrea Coppola, Alessandro Ambrosi, Silvia Ravelli, Antonio Esposito, Massimo Freschi, Alberto Briganti, Vincenzo Scattoni, Andrea Salonia, Andrea Gallina, Federico Dehò, Gianpiero Cardone, Giuseppe Balconi, Franco Gaboardi, Francesco Montorsi, Alessandro Del Maschio, Francesco De Cobelli

Department of Radiology, Centre for Experimental Imaging, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy. Department of Radiology, Centre for Experimental Imaging, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy., Department of Radiology, Centre for Experimental Imaging, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Department of Radiology, Centre for Experimental Imaging, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy., Department of Pathology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy; Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy; Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy; Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Department of Radiology, San Raffaele-Turro Hospital, Milan, Italy., Department of Radiology, San Raffaele-Turro Hospital, Milan, Italy., Department of Urology, San Raffaele-Turro Hospital, Milan, Italy., Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy; Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Department of Radiology, Centre for Experimental Imaging, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy., Department of Radiology, Centre for Experimental Imaging, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

E-Newsletters

Newsletter subscription

Free Daily and Weekly newsletters offered by content of interest

The fields of GU Oncology and Urology are rapidly advancing. Sign up today for articles, videos, conference highlights and abstracts from peer-review publications by disease and condition delivered to your inbox and read on the go.

Subscribe