Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Image Fusion Supported Transperineal Prostate Biopsy Using the Ginsburg Protocol: Technique, Learning Points, and Biopsy Results

BACKGROUND - Prostate biopsy supported by transperineal image fusion has recently been developed as a new method to the improve accuracy of prostate cancer detection.

OBJECTIVE - To describe the Ginsburg protocol for transperineal prostate biopsy supported by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) image fusion, provide learning points for its application, and report biopsy results.

The article is supplemented by a Surgery in Motion video.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS - This single-centre retrospective outcome study included 534 patients from March 2012 to October 2015. A total of 107 had no previous prostate biopsy, 295 had benign TRUS-guided biopsies, and 159 were on active surveillance for low-risk cancer.

SURGICAL PROCEDURE - A Likert scale reported mpMRI for suspicion of cancer from 1 (no suspicion) to 5 (cancer highly likely). Transperineal biopsies were obtained under general anaesthesia using BiopSee fusion software (Medcom, Darmstadt, Germany). All patients had systematic biopsies, two cores from each of 12 anatomic sectors. Likert 3-5 lesions were targeted with a further two cores per lesion.

OUTCOME MEASURES AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS - Any cancer and Gleason score 7-10 cancer on biopsy were noted. Descriptive statistics and positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS - The detection rate of Gleason score 7-10 cancer was similar across clinical groups. Likert scale 3-5 MRI lesions were reported in 378 (71%) of the patients. Cancer was detected in 249 (66%) and Gleason score 7-10 cancer was noted in 157 (42%) of these patients. PPV for detecting 7-10 cancer was 0.15 for Likert score 3, 0.43 for score 4, and 0.63 for score 5. NPV of Likert 1-2 findings was 0.87 for Gleason score 7-10 and 0.97 for Gleason score ≥4+3=7 cancer. Limitations include lack of data on complications.

CONCLUSIONS - Transperineal prostate biopsy supported by MRI/TRUS image fusion using the Ginsburg protocol yielded high detection rates of Gleason score 7-10 cancer. Because the NPV for excluding Gleason score 7-10 cancer was very high, prostate biopsies may not be needed for all men with elevated prostate-specific antigen values and nonsuspicious mpMRI.

PATIENT SUMMARY - We present our technique to sample (biopsy) the prostate by the transperineal route (the area between the scrotum and the anus) to detect prostate cancer using a fusion of magnetic resonance and ultrasound images to guide the sampling.

European urology. 2016 Mar 16 [Epub ahead of print]

Nienke Hansen, Giulio Patruno, Karan Wadhwa, Gabriele Gaziev, Roberto Miano, Tristan Barrett, Vincent Gnanapragasam, Andrew Doble, Anne Warren, Ola Bratt, Christof Kastner

CamPARI Clinic, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany., Department of Urology, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy., Department of Urology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK., Department of Urology, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy., Department of Urology, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy., CamPARI Clinic, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK., CamPARI Clinic, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Urology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK., CamPARI Clinic, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Urology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK., CamPARI Clinic, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Histopathology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK., CamPARI Clinic, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Urology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK., CamPARI Clinic, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Urology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. 

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