Despite the introduction of novel therapies that maximally decrease androgen-receptor (AR) signaling activity, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains a lethal disease. Even though abiraterone and enzalutamide represent breakthroughs in the treatment of mCRPC and have demonstrated significant survival benefits, a significant proportion of patients have primary resistance to these agents and virtually all patients develop secondary resistance.
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While the mechanisms of resistance to these agents are not fully understood, many hypotheses of AR-dependent and AR-independent mechanisms are emerging, including upregulation of AR and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17), induction of AR splice variants, AR point mutations, upregulation of glucocorticoid receptor, activation of alternative oncogenic signaling pathways, neuroendocrine transformation, and immune evasion via programmed death-ligand 1 upregulation. The aim of this review is to summarize the most clinically relevant mechanisms of resistance to novel androgen-directed agents, focusing on escape from enzalutamide and abiraterone.
Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology. 2016 Mar 16*** epublish ***
Karim Boudadi, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD, USA., Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD, USA.