MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis and Theranostics in Prostate Cancer.

Prostate cancer (PC) includes several phenotypes, from indolent to highly aggressive cancer. Actual diagnostic and prognostic tools have several limitations, and there is a need for new biomarkers to stratify patients and assign them optimal therapies by taking into account potential genetic and epigenetic differences.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small sequences of non-coding RNA regulating specific genes involved in the onset and development of PC. Stable miRNAs have been found in biofluids, such as serum and plasma; thus, the measurement of PC-associated miRNAs is emerging as a non-invasive tool for PC detection and monitoring. In this study, we conduct an in-depth literature review focusing on miRNAs that may contribute to the diagnosis and prognosis of PC. The role of miRNAs as a potential theranostic tool in PC is discussed. Using a meta-analysis approach, we found a group of 29 miRNAs with diagnostic properties and a group of seven miRNAs with prognostic properties, which were found already expressed in both biofluids and PC tissues. We tested the two miRNA groups on The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset of PC tissue samples with a machine-learning approach. Our results suggest that these 29 miRNAs should be considered as potential panel of biomarkers for the diagnosis of PC, both as in vivo non-invasive test and ex vivo confirmation test.

International journal of molecular sciences. 2016 Mar 22*** epublish ***

Gloria Bertoli, Claudia Cava, Isabella Castiglioni

Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, National Research Council (IBFM-CNR), Segrate 20090, Segrate (Mi), Italy. ., Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, National Research Council (IBFM-CNR), Segrate 20090, Segrate (Mi), Italy. ., Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, National Research Council (IBFM-CNR), Segrate 20090, Segrate (Mi), Italy.