The clinical phenotype of hereditary versus sporadic prostate cancer: HPC definition revisited.

BACKGROUND - The definition of hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) is based on family history and age at onset. Intuitively, HPC is a serious subtype of prostate cancer but there are only limited data on the clinical phenotype of HPC.

Here, we aimed to compare the prognosis of HPC to the sporadic form of prostate cancer (SPC).

METHODS - HPC patients were identified through a national registry of HPC families in the Netherlands, selecting patients diagnosed from the year 2000 onward (n = 324). SPC patients were identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) between 2003 and 2006 for a population-based study into the genetic susceptibility of PC (n = 1,664). Detailed clinical data were collected by NCR-registrars, using a standardized registration form. Follow-up extended up to the end of 2013. Differences between the groups were evaluated by cross-tabulations and tested for statistical significance while accounting for familial dependency of observations by GEE. Differences in progression-free and overall survival were evaluated using χ(2) testing with GEE in a proportional-hazards model.

RESULTS - HPC patients were on average 3 years younger at diagnosis, had lower PSA values, lower Gleason scores, and more often locally confined disease. Of the HPC patients, 35% had high-risk disease (NICE-criteria) versus 51% of the SPC patients. HPC patients were less often treated with active surveillance. Kaplan-Meier 5-year progression-free survival after radical prostatectomy was comparable for HPC (78%) and SPC (74%; P = 0.30). The 5-year overall survival was 85% (95%CI 81-89%) for HPC versus 80% (95%CI 78-82%) for SPC (P = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS - HPC has a favorable clinical phenotype but patients more often underwent radical treatment. The major limitation of HPC is the absence of a genetics-based definition of HPC, which may lead to over-diagnosis of PC in men with a family history of prostate cancer. The HPC definition should, therefore, be re-evaluated, aiming at a reduction of over-diagnosis and overtreatment among men with multiple relatives diagnosed with PC. Prostate © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The Prostate. 2016 Mar 14 [Epub ahead of print]

Ruben G Cremers, Katja K Aben, Inge M van Oort, J P Michiel Sedelaar, Hans F Vasen, Sita H Vermeulen, Lambertus A Kiemeney

Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands., Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands., Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands., Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands., The Netherlands Foundation for the Detection of Hereditary Tumours, Leiden, The Netherlands., Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands., Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.