Imaging is playing an increasingly important role in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). This review summarizes the key imaging modalities-multiparametric ultrasound (US), multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MRI-US fusion imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging-used in the diagnosis and localization of PCa. Emphasis is laid on the biological and functional characteristics of tumors that rationalize the use of a specific imaging technique. Changes to anatomical architecture of tissue can be detected by anatomical grayscale US and T2-weighted MRI. Tumors are known to progress through angiogenesis-a fact exploited by Doppler and contrast-enhanced US and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The increased cellular density of tumors is targeted by elastography and diffusion-weighted MRI. PET imaging employs several different radionuclides to target the metabolic and cellular activities during tumor growth. Results from studies using these various imaging techniques are discussed and compared.
Biomedical engineering and computational biology. 2016 Mar 02*** epublish ***
Saradwata Sarkar, Sudipta Das
Research and Development Division, Eigen, Grass Valley, CA, USA., Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.