Current status of active surveillance in prostate cancer.

Active surveillance (AS) is a management strategy involving close monitoring the course of disease with the expectation to intervene if the cancer progress, in a super-selected group of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Determining AS candidates should be based on careful individualized weighing of numerous factors: life expectancy, general health condition, disease characteristics, potential side effects of treatment, and patient preference. Several protocols have been developed to determine insignificant PCa for choosing ideal AS candidates. Results regarding disease reclassification during AS have been also reported. In an effort to enhance accuracy during selection of AS candidate, there were several reports on using magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of insignificant PCa. Currently, there is an urgent need for further clinical studies regarding the criteria for recommending AS, the criteria for reclassification on AS, and the schedule for AS. Considering the racial differences in behavior of PCa between Western and Asian populations, more stringent AS protocols for Asian patients should be established from additional, well-designed, large clinical studies.

Investigative and clinical urology. 2016 Jan 11 [Epub]

Mun Su Chung, Seung Hwan Lee

Department of Urology, Catholic Kwandong University, International St. Mary's Hospital, Incheon, Korea., Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.