Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography in prostate cancer: a step toward personalized medicine

Increasing attention is being given to personalized medicine in oncology, where therapies are tailored to the particular characteristics of the individual cancer patient. In recent years, there has been greater focus on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in prostate cancer (PCa) as a target for imaging and therapy with radionuclides. This review highlights the recent advancements in PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) in PCa during the past year.

Several reports on PSMA PET/computed tomography (CT) in PCa patients are demonstrating promising results, especially for detection of biochemical recurrence. F-PSMA PET/CT may be superior to Ga-PSMA PET/CT. The detection rate of PSMA PET is influenced by prostate-specific antigen level. PSMA PET/CT may have a higher detection rate than choline PET/CT. Only a few reports have been published on PSMA PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and this modality remains to be elucidated further.

Molecular imaging with PSMA PET is paving the way for personalized medicine in PCa. However, large prospective clinical studies are needed to further evaluate the role of PSMA PET/CT and PET/MRI in the clinical workflow of PCa. PSMA is an excellent target for imaging and therapy with radionuclides, and the 'image and treat' strategy has the potential to become a milestone in the management of PCa patients.

Current opinion in oncology. 2016 Mar 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Kirsten Bouchelouche, Peter L Choyke

aDepartment of Nuclear Medicine and PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark bMolecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.


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