Prostate Cancer Prevention: Concepts and Clinical Trials.

Prevention is an important treatment strategy for diminishing prostate cancer morbidity and mortality and is applicable to both early- and late-stage disease. There are three basic classifications of cancer prevention: primary (prevention of incident disease), secondary (identification and treatment of preclinical disease), and tertiary (prevention of progression or recurrence).

Based on level I evidence, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) should be considered in selected men to prevent incident prostate cancer. Level I evidence also supports the consideration of dutasteride, a 5-ARI, for tertiary prevention in active surveillance and biochemical recurrence patients. Vitamins and supplements, including selenium or vitamin E, have not been proven in clinical trials to prevent prostate cancer and in the case of Vitamin E has been found to increase the risk of incident prostate cancer. Ongoing and future trials may further elucidate the role of diet and immunotherapy for prevention of prostate cancer.

Current urology reports. 2016 Apr [Epub]

Zachary Hamilton, J Kellogg Parsons

Department of Urology, Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center, UC San Diego Health System, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, Mail Code: 0987, La Jolla, CA, 93093-0987, USA. Department of Urology, Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center, UC San Diego Health System, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, Mail Code: 0987, La Jolla, CA, 93093-0987, USA.