The cystographic study of patients who have undergone radiotherapy (RT) and pelvic surgeries is uncommon in the literature, not described in patients without complications, and mostly related to urinary fistulae.
The study of the lower urinary tract (LUT) by cystography in these patients, with a description of some other types of radiation lesions.
127 cystographies have been performed (88 men and 39 women) in consecutive patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) (48 monotherapy and 79 cases combined with surgery), with a mean age of 69.6 years, and a mean time from radiation of 215 months (17 years). A General Electric X ray equipment has been used. We studied: behavior of the bladder neck at rest and during micturition, assessment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), bladder morphology (BM), urethral strictures (UE) and fistulas (F).
We observed: Filling phase bladder neck incompetence (BNI) (37.8%), bladder smooth morphology (60.6%), coughing urinary incontinence (UI) (26.4%), basal cystocele (64.7%) and Valsalva cystocele (96.6%), a normal opening bladder neck (96,1%), reduction of the urethral diameter during voiding (41.3%), and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) (13.2%). Five cases of filling BNI, were all related to prostate cancer (PC) (one of them with colon cancer as well). There were six cases of fistulae (4.14%), five of them women. Forty two patients (28.96%) had reduced urethral lumen, thirty five of them affecting the posterior urethra (83%), five (11.9%) the anterior and, finally, two cases of mixed lesion (5%). 95% were patients with PC without concurrent interventions (67%). Significant differences were found regarding the gender and the background of pelvic surgery. The filling BNI (p=0.007), the irregular bladder morphology (p=0.004) and the reduction of the urethral lumen (p<0.001) have been found to be more common in male patients, while the coughing UI was more common in women (p=0.007). The study shows that BNI (p=0.046), VUR (p=0.02) and the IU due to cough (p=0.03) were more frequent in operated patients, while reduced urethral lumen was less common (p<0.01). Patients with VUR present more time from radiotherapy, but not in other cystography variables. There was a relationship between RT and the BNI, stress urinary incontinence, anterior urethral stricture and VUR. The risk factor was increased by surgery.
Bladder neck incompetence, stress UI, anterior urethral stricture and VUR have been related to radiotherapy. Surgery increased the risk factor in operated patients.
Archivos espanoles de urologia. 2016 Mar [Epub]
S Méndez Rubio, J Salinas Casado, M Vírseda Chamorro, P Gutiérrez Martín, M Esteban Fuertes, J Moreno Sierra
Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario Sanitas La Moraleja. Madrid. España., Servicio de Urología. Hospital Clínico San Carlos. Madrid. España., Servicio de Urología. Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos. Toledo. España., 4Servicio de Urología. Hospital General. Talavera de la Reina. Toledo. España., Servicio de Urología. Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos. Toledo. España., Servicio de Urología. Hospital Clínico San Carlos. Madrid. España.