Population-wide Impact of Long-term Use of Aspirin and the Risk for Cancer.

The US Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended the use of aspirin to prevent colorectal cancer and cardiovascular disease among many US adults. However, the association of aspirin use with the risk for other cancer types and the potential population-wide effect of aspirin use on cancer, particularly within the context of screening, remain uncertain.

To examine the potential benefits of aspirin use for overall and subtype-specific cancer prevention at a range of doses and durations of use and to estimate the absolute benefit of aspirin in the context of screening.

Two large US prospective cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2010) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012), followed up 135 965 health care professionals (88 084 women and 47 881 men, respectively) who reported on aspirin use biennially. The women were aged 30 to 55 years at enrollment in 1976; the men, aged 40 to 75 years in 1986. Final follow-up was completed on June 30, 2012, for the Nurses' Health Study cohort and January 31, 2010, for the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohort, and data were accessed from September 15, 2014, to December 17, 2015.

Relative risks (RRs) for incident cancers and population-attributable risk (PAR).

Among the 88 084 women and 47 881 men who underwent follow-up for as long as 32 years, 20 414 cancers among women and 7571 cancers among men were documented. Compared with nonregular use, regular aspirin use was associated with a lower risk for overall cancer (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), which was primarily owing to a lower incidence of gastrointestinal tract cancers (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.80-0.91), especially colorectal cancers (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75-0.88). The benefit of aspirin on gastrointestinal tract cancers appeared evident with the use of at least 0.5 to 1.5 standard aspirin tablets per week; the minimum duration of regular use associated with a lower risk was 6 years. Among individuals older than 50 years, regular aspirin use could prevent 33 colorectal cancers per 100 000 person-years (PAR, 17.0%) among those who had not undergone a lower endoscopy and 18 colorectal cancers per 100 000 person-years (PAR, 8.5%) among those who had. Regular aspirin use was not associated with the risk for breast, advanced prostate, or lung cancer.

Long-term aspirin use was associated with a modest but significantly reduced risk for overall cancer, especially gastrointestinal tract tumors. Regular aspirin use may prevent a substantial proportion of colorectal cancers and complement the benefits of screening.

JAMA oncology. 2016 Mar 03 [Epub ahead of print]

Yin Cao, Reiko Nishihara, Kana Wu, Molin Wang, Shuji Ogino, Walter C Willett, Donna Spiegelman, Charles S Fuchs, Edward L Giovannucci, Andrew T Chan

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts2Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston3Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General., Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts4Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Heal., Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts., Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts., Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 6Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts7Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hosp., Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts4Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 8Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital a., Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts., Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts8Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts., Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts4Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 8Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital a., Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston3Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston8Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham.