Several observational studies on the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer have yielded inconsistent results. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer.
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Relevant studies in PubMed and Embase databases were retrieved until October 2015. We compared the highest and lowest meta-analyses to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. In the general population, high Cd exposure was not associated with increased prostate cancer (OR 1. 21; 95% CI 0. 91-1. 64), whereas the combined standardized mortality ratio of the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer was 1. 66 (95% CI 1. 10-2. 50) in populations exposed to occupational Cd. In addition, high D-Cd intake (OR 1. 07; 95% CI 0. 96-1. 20) and U-Cd concentration (OR 0. 86; 95% CI 0. 48-1. 55) among the general population was not related to the increased risk of prostate cancer. In the dose analysis, the summary relative risk was 1. 07 (95% CI 0. 73-1. 57) for each 0. 5 μg/g creatinine increase in U-Cd and 1. 02 (95% CI 0. 99-1. 06) for each 10 μg/day increase of dietary Cd intake. However, compared with nonoccupational exposure, high occupational Cd exposure may be associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer. This meta-analysis suggests high Cd exposure as a risk factor for prostate cancer in occupational rather than nonoccupational populations. However, these results should be carefully interpreted because of the significant heterogeneity among studies. Additional large-scale and high-quality prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer.
Medicine. 2016 Feb [Epub]
Song Ju-Kun, Dong-Bo Yuan, Hao-Fu Rao, Tian-Fei Chen, Bo-Shi Luan, Xiao-Ming Xu, Fu-Neng Jiang, Wei-De Zhong, Jian-Guo Zhu
From the Department of Oral and maxillofacial surgery (SJ-K), Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, Guizhou; Department of Urology (D-BY, H-FR, T-FC, B-SL, J-GZ), Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guizhou, Guiyang; Department of Urology (X-MX), Ningbo No. 2 Hospital, Ningbo; Department of Urology (F-NJ, W-DZ, J-GZ), Guangdong Key Laboratory of Clinical Molecular Medicine and Diagnostics, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guangzhou; and Urology Key Laboratory of Guangdong Province (F-NJ, W-DZ, J-GZ), The First Affiliated, Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.