While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM).
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We examined the associations of pre- and post-diagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Pre-diagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Post-diagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither pre- nor post-diagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (4(th) vs. 1(st) quartile HR=1. 00, 95% CI 0. 78 - 1. 28; HR=1. 22, 95% CI 0. 91 - 1. 64, respectively). Similarly, neither pre- nor post-diagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4, or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both post-diagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR=0. 41, 95% CI 0. 17 - 0. 99, based on 10 PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake < median. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential inverse association of consistently high lycopene intake with PCSM among men with high-risk prostate cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2016 Feb 02 [Epub ahead of print]
Ying Wang, Eric J Jacobs, Christina C Newton, Marjorie L McCullough
Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, 30303. , Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, 30303. , Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, 30303. , Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, 30303.