Autopsy studies have confirmed the high prevalence of latent prostate cancer; however, only a certain portion of patients require definite treatment. Active surveillance is one of the treatment options which, according to national and international guidelines, should be offered to patients with newly diagnosed low-risk prostate cancer.
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Prostate cancer-specific survival is high in these patients; therefore, curative treatment, such as radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy may be initially deferred in order to avoid therapy-related side effects. In order to qualify for active surveillance, strict inclusion criteria have to be met; nevertheless, the reliable identification of low-risk prostate cancer patients is not always possible. Patients under active surveillance are followed up regularly with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, digital rectal examination (DRE) and repeat prostate biopsies. Due to the heterogeneity of primary prostate tumors precise molecular diagnostic techniques could allow individualized treatment strategies in the future.
Der Urologe. Ausg. A. 2016 Feb 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Annika Herlemann, Christian G Stief
Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Campus Großhadern, Marchioninistraße 15, 81377, München, Deutschland. Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Campus Großhadern, Marchioninistraße 15, 81377, München, Deutschland.