Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including ischemic heart disease, stroke, and heart failure, are well-established late effects of therapy in survivors of childhood and young adult (< 40 years at diagnosis) cancers; less is known regarding CVD in long-term survivors of adult-onset (≥ 40 years) cancer.
A retrospective cohort study design was used to describe the magnitude of CVD risk in 36,232 ≥ 2-year survivors of adult-onset cancer compared with matched (age, sex, and residential ZIP code) noncancer controls (n = 73,545) within a large integrated managed care organization. Multivariable regression was used to examine the impact of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs; hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia) on long-term CVD risk in cancer survivors.
Survivors of multiple myeloma (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1. 70; P < . 01), carcinoma of the lung/bronchus (IRR, 1. 58; P < . 01), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (IRR, 1. 41; P < . 01), and breast cancer (IRR, 1. 13; P < . 01) had significantly higher CVD risk when compared with noncancer controls. Conversely, prostate cancer survivors had a lower CVD risk (IRR, 0. 89; P < . 01) compared with controls. Cancer survivors with two or more CVRFs had the highest risk of CVD when compared with noncancer controls with less than two CVRFs (IRR, 1. 83 to 2. 59; P < . 01). Eight-year overall survival was significantly worse among cancer survivors who developed CVD (60%) when compared with cancer survivors without CVD (81%; P < . 01).
The magnitude of subsequent CVD risk varies according to cancer subtype and by the presence of CVRFs. Overall survival in survivors who develop CVD is poor, emphasizing the need for targeted prevention strategies for individuals at highest risk of developing CVD.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2016 Feb 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Saro H Armenian, Lanfang Xu, Bonnie Ky, Canlan Sun, Leonardo T Farol, Sumanta Kumar Pal, Pamela S Douglas, Smita Bhatia, Chun Chao
Saro H. Armenian, Canlan Sun, and Sumanta Kumar Pal, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte; Lanfang Xu and Chun Chao, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena; Leonardo T. Farol, City of Hope-Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA; Bonnie Ky, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Pamela S. Douglas, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC; and Smita Bhatia, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.