Utility of Prostate Cancer Screening in Kidney Transplant Candidates

Screening recommendations for prostate cancer remain controversial, and no specific guidelines exist for screening in renal transplant candidates. To examine whether the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening in patients with ESRD affects time to transplantation and transplant outcomes, we retrospectively analyzed 3782 male patients ≥18 years of age undergoing primary renal transplant evaluation during a 10-year period.

Patients were grouped by age per American Urological Association screening guidelines: group 1, patients <55 years; group 2, patients 55-69 years; and group 3, patients >69 years. A positive screening test result was defined as a PSA level >4 ng/ml. We used univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazards models to identify the independent effect of screening on transplant waiting times, patient survival, and graft survival. Screening was performed in 63. 6% of candidates, and 1198 candidates (31. 7%) received kidney transplants. PSA screening was not associated with improved patient survival after transplantation (P=0. 24). However, it did increase the time to listing and transplantation for candidates in groups 1 and 2 who had a positive screening result (P<0. 05). Furthermore, compared with candidates who were not screened, PSA-screened candidates had a reduced likelihood of receiving a transplant regardless of the screening outcome (P<0. 001). These data strongly suggest that PSA screening for prostate cancer may be more harmful than protective in renal transplant candidates because it does not appear to confer a survival benefit to these candidates and may delay listing and decrease transplantation rates.

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2015 Dec 23 [Epub ahead of print]

Gerardo A Vitiello, Blayne A Sayed, Marla Wardenburg, Sebastian D Perez, Christopher G Keith, Daniel J Canter, Kenneth Ogan, Thomas C Pearson, Nicole Turgeon

Department of Transplant Surgery and Department of Surgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York;, Department of Transplant Surgery and. , Department of Transplant Surgery and Department of Urology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; and. , Department of Transplant Surgery and. , Department of Transplant Surgery and. , Department of Urology, Einstein Healthcare Network, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. , Department of Urology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia;, Department of Transplant Surgery and. , Department of Transplant Surgery



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