PSMA Ligands for Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Status.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. At present, imaging of PCa has become increasingly important for staging, restaging, and treatment selection.

Until recently, choline-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) represented the state-of-the-art radionuclide imaging technique for these purposes. However, its application is limited to patients with high PSA levels and Gleason scores. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising new target for specific imaging of PCa, because it is upregulated in the majority of PCa. Moreover, PSMA can serve as a target for therapeutic applications. Currently, several small-molecule PSMA ligands with excellent in vivo tumor targeting characteristics are being investigated for their potential in theranostic applications in PCa. Here, a review of the recent developments in PSMA-based diagnostic imaging and therapy in patients with PCa with radiolabeled PSMA ligands is provided.

Theranostics. 2015 Oct 18*** epublish ***

Susanne Lütje, Sandra Heskamp, Alexander S Cornelissen, Thorsten D Poeppel, Sebastiaan A M W van den Broek, Sandra Rosenbaum-Krumme, Andreas Bockisch, Martin Gotthardt, Mark Rijpkema, Otto C Boerman

1. Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany ; 2. Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. , 2. Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. , 2. Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. , 1. Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany. , 3. FutureChemistry Holding BV, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. , 1. Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany. , 1. Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany. , 2. Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. , 2. Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. , 2. Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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