Men receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) are likely to develop metabolic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, abdominal obesity and osteoporosis. Other treatment-related side effects adversely influence quality of life (QoL) including vasomotor distress, depression, anxiety, mood swings, poor sleep quality and compromised sexual function.
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The objective of this study was to systematically review the nature and effects of dietary and exercise interventions on QoL, androgen deprivation symptoms and metabolic risk factors in men with PCa undergoing ADT. An electronic search of CINAHL, CENTRAL, Medline, PsychINFO and reference lists was performed to identify peer-reviewed articles published between January 2004 and December, 2014 in English. Eligible study designs included randomised controlled trials with pre- and post-intervention data. Data extraction and assessment of methodological quality with the Cochrane approach was conducted by two independent reviewers. Seven exercise studies were identified. Exercise significantly improved QoL, but showed no effect on metabolic risk factors (weight, waist circumference, lean or fat mass, blood pressure, lipid profile). Two dietary studies were identified, both of which tested soy supplements. Soy supplementation did not improve any outcomes. No dietary counselling studies were identified. No studies evaluated androgen-deficiency symptoms (libido, erectile function, sleep quality, mood swings, depression, anxiety, bone mineral density). Evidence from RCTs indicates that exercise enhances health- and disease-specific QoL in men with PCa undergoing ADT. Further studies are required to evaluate the effect of exercise and dietary interventions on QoL, androgen deprivation symptoms and metabolic risk factors in this cohort.
Endocrine-related cancer. 2015 Nov 19 [Epub ahead of print]
Laisa Teleni, Raymond J Chan, Alexandre Chan, Elisabeth A Isenring, Ian Vela, Warrick Inder, Alexandra L McCarthy
L Teleni, School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, 4059, Australia. R Chan, School of Nursing, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. , A Chan, Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. , E Isenring, Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia. , I Vela, Department of Urology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. , W Inder, Department of Diabetes & Endocrinology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. , A McCarthy, Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.