Prostate Cancer Heterogeneous High-Metastatic Multi-Organ-Colonizing Chemo-Resistant Variants Selected by Serial Metastatic Passage in Nude Mice Are Highly Enriched for Multinucleate Giant Cells.

In order to further understand the role of tumor heterogeneity in metastasis and chemo-resistance, high metastatic PC-3 human prostate cancer variants were selected by injecting parental PC-3 cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the footpad of nude mice, which then metastasize to inguinal lymph nodes.

The PC-3-GFP cells which metastasized to the inguinal lymph nodes were collected and were re-injected to the footpad. After 6 such cycles, the PC-3-GFP cells collected from inguinal lymph nodes (PC-3-GFP-LN) were again injected to the footpad. PC-3-GFP-LN showed 100% metastasis to major lymph nodes (popliteal, inguinal, axillary, and cervical), and 100% metastasis to bone and lung. The percent of giant cell variants was enriched in PC-3-GFP-LN-6 compared to parental cells and increased with each cycle of selection, which in turn had increased metastasis. PC-3-GFP-LN-6 cells were resistant to 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cisplatinum, compared to parental PC-3. However, PC-3-GFP-LN-6 was sensitive to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ, similar to the parental cells. These results suggest that PC-3 tumors are heterogenous and that subpopulations of highly metastatic, drug-resistant cells can be step-wise selected using a mouse model of tumor progression.

PloS one. 2015 Nov 04*** epublish ***

Lei Zhang, Chengyu Wu, Robert M Hoffman

AntiCancer Inc. , San Diego, CA, United States of America. , Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, PR China. , AntiCancer Inc. , San Diego, CA, United States of America.