High-Fat Diet (HFD) has emerged as an important risk factor not only for obesity and diabetes but also for urological disorders. Recent research provides ample evidence that HFD is a putative cause for prostatic diseases including prostate cancer.
The mechanisms whereby these diseases develop in the prostate have not been fully elucidated. In this review we discuss signaling pathways intricately involved in HFD-induced prostate disease. We performed a search through PUBMED using key words "high fat diet" and "prostate". Our data and perspectives are included in this review along with research performed by various other groups. HFD is positively associated with an increased risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. HFD induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the prostate gland, and these adverse influences transform it from a normal to a diseased state. Studies demonstrate that HFD accelerates the generation of reactive oxygen species by driving the NADPH oxidase system, exacerbating oxidative stress in the prostate. HFD also causes a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and gene products through activation of two important signaling pathways: the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-3 and Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Both these pathways function as transcription factors required for regulating genes involved in proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion and inflammation. The crosstalk between these two pathways enhances their regulatory function. Through its influences on the NF-κB and Stat-3 signaling pathways, it appears likely that HFD increases the risk of development of BPH and prostate cancer.
Journal of urology and research. 2015 Jan 12 [Epub]
Eswar Shankar, Natarajan Bhaskaran, Gregory T MacLennan, Guiming Liu, Firouz Daneshgari, Sanjay Gupta
Department of Urology, Case Western Reserve University & University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 USA. , Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University & University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 USA. , Department of Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 USA. , Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 USA.