In this perspective, modifiable carcinogenic factors for the prostate are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of how current knowledge about causation of prostate cancer and chemoprevention of prostate cancer can be used to develop preventive strategies.
Prostate cancer is a slowly developing cancer which offers opportunities for preventive interventions. Only a few randomized clinical trials of prostate cancer prevention have been completed. The SELECT study with selenium and vitamin E did not find protective effects, but in two trials with 5α-reductase inhibitors risk was reduced about 25%, showing that chemoprevention is possible and indicating that the androgen receptor is a suitable target. Besides smoking cessation and reduction of obesity, there are no known dietary or life style interventions that will have a major impact on prostate cancer risk. Inflammation of the prostate is an attractive target and aspirin may be a promising candidate agent, but has not been addressed yet in preclinical and clinical studies. Antioxidants other than selenium and vitamin E are unlikely to be very effective and data on several dietary supplements are not encouraging. More candidate agents need to be identified and tested in relevant and adequate preclinical models and Phase II trials that have predictive value for outcome of Phase III randomized studies. Doing this will require a systematic approach comparing preclinical and clinical study outcomes to determine their predictive value of preventive efficacy.
Current pharmacology reports. 2015 Apr 11 [Epub]
Maarten C Bosland, Nur Ozten, Jillian N Eskra, Abeer M Mahmoud
Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. , Faculty of Pharmacy, Bezmiâlem Vakif University, Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey. , Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. , Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.