Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a highly effective treatment used in approximately 30% of men with prostate cancer. Adverse effects of ADT on muscle are significant with consistent losses in muscle mass.
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However, effects of ADT on muscle strength and physical function, of most relevance to the patient, are less well understood. This is in part due to the fact that muscle effects of ADT at the cellular, genetic and protein level, critical to the understanding of the pathophysiology of sarcopenia, have come into focus only recently. This review highlights the complexity of androgen-dependent signaling in muscle with an emphasis on recent findings in the regulation of muscle growth and muscle atrophy pathways. Furthermore, the effects of ADT and testosterone on skeletal muscle histology, gene expression and protein transcription are discussed. A better mechanistic understanding of the regulation of muscle mass and function by androgens should not only pave the way for developing targeted promyogenic interventions for men with prostate cancer receiving ADT, but may have wider implications for age-associated sarcopenia in the general population.
Endocrine-related cancer. 2015 Oct 02 [Epub ahead of print]
Casey de Rooy, Mathis Grossmann, Jeffrey David Zajac, Ada S Cheung
C de Rooy, Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Australia. , M Grossmann, Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Australia. , J Zajac, Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Australia. , A Cheung, Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Australia