Detection of Local Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy Using Endorectal Coil MRI at 3 T: Addition of DWI and Dynamic Contrast Enhancement to T2-Weighted MRI.

The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of DWI and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) in MRI at 3 T with an endorectal coil in identifying local prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

Eighty men underwent MRI for suspected local recurrence. The reference standards were histopathologic result, decrease in prostate-specific antigen level after salvage radiation therapy, and follow-up findings. Using a 5-point scoring system, two reviewers independently interpreted T2-weighted images alone (protocol A), a combination of T2-weighted and DW images (protocol B), a combination of T2-weighted and DCE images (protocol C), and a combination of T2-weighted, DW, and DCE images (protocol D). ROC analysis was used to compare the four protocols.

Local recurrence was found in 57 of the 80 patients (71. 3%). The ROC AUCs for protocols A, B, C, and D were 0. 71, 0. 72, 0. 90, and 0. 89 for reader 1 and 0. 65, 0. 62, 0. 84, and 0. 83 for reader 2. Protocols C and D had statistically better performance than protocols A and B for both readers (p < 0. 001). For local recurrence lesions with a long-axis diameter less than 10 mm visualized with protocol C, protocol B had detection rates of 25. 0-29. 4% and for lesions measuring 10 mm or greater, 67. 9-69. 0%. The rates of detection of local recurrence with protocol C or D were 76. 5-82. 4% for prostate-specific antigen levels less than 0. 4 ng/mL, 60-73. 3% for 0. 4-1. 0 ng/mL, and 80-88. 0% for greater than 1. 0 ng/mL.

Addition of DCE to T2-weighted imaging in 3-T MRI with an endorectal coil improves the accuracy of detection of local cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy. The addition of DWI is of limited incremental value for detection, especially of small lesions.

AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 2015 Oct [Epub]

Kazuhiro Kitajima, Robert P Hartman, Adam T Froemming, Clinton E Hagen, Naoki Takahashi, Akira Kawashima

1 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905. , 1 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905. , 1 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905. , 3 Department of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. , 1 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905. , 1 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905.

PubMed