An epidemiological analysis of potential associations between C-reactive protein, inflammation, and prostate cancer in the male US population using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in US males, yet much remains to be learned about the role of inflammation in its etiology. We hypothesized that preexisting exposure to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents or inflammatory diseases increase the risk of prostate cancer.

Using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relationships between demographic variables, inflammation, infection, circulating plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of occurrence of prostate cancer in US men over 18 years of age. Using IBM SPSS, we performed bivariate and logistic regression analyses using high CRP values as the dependent variable and five study covariates including prostate cancer status. From 2009-2010, an estimated 5,448,373 men reported having prostate cancer of which the majority were Caucasian (70. 1%) and were aged 40 years and older (62. 7%). Bivariate analyses demonstrated that high CRP was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Greater odds of having prostate cancer were revealed for men that had inflammation related to disease (OR = 1. 029, CI 1. 029-1. 029) and those who were not taking drugs to control inflammation (OR = 1. 330, CI 1. 324-1. 336). Men who did not have inflammation resulting from non-infectious diseases had greater odds of not having prostate cancer (OR = 1. 031, CI 1. 030-1. 031). Logistic regression analysis yielded that men with the highest CRP values had greater odds of having higher household incomes and lower odds of having received higher education, being aged 40 years or older, being of a race or ethnicity different from other, and of having prostate cancer. Our results show that chronic inflammation of multiple etiologies is a risk factor for prostate cancer and that CRP is not associated with this increased risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between inflammation and prostate cancer.

Frontiers in chemistry. 2015 Aug 28*** epublish ***

Catherine A St Hill, M Nawal Lutfiyya

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA. , Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA ; National Center for Interprofessional Education and Practice, Children's Rehabilitation Center, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA.