Tumor growth and invasion are interconnected with the tumor microenvironment. Overexpression of genes that regulate cancer cell invasion by growth factors, cytokines, and lipid factors can affect cancer aggressiveness.
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A comparative gene expression analysis between highly invasive and low invasive cells revealed that various genes are differentially expressed in association with invasive potential. In this study, we selected variant PC-3 prostate cancer cell sublines and discovered critical molecules that contributed to their invasive potential.
The high invasive and low invasive variant PC-3 cell sublines were obtained by serial selection following Matrigel-coated Transwell invasion and were characterized by Transwell invasion, luciferase reporter assay, and Rhotekin pull-down assay. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was added to the cultures to observe the response to this extracellular stimulus. The essential molecules related with cancer invasiveness were detected with Northern blotting, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and cDNA microarray.
Highly invasive PC-3 cells showed higher nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), activator protein 1 (AP-1) and RhoA activities than of low invasive PC-3 cells. LPA promoted cancer invasion through NF-κB, AP-1, and RhoA activities. Thrombospondin-1, interleukin-8, kallikrein 6, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and tissue factor were overexpressed in the highly invasive PC-3 variant cells and further upregulated by LPA stimulation.
The results suggest that the target molecules are involved in invasiveness of prostate cancer. These molecules may have clinical value for anti-invasion therapy by serving as biomarkers for the prediction of aggressive cancers and the detection of pharmacological inhibitors.
Journal of cancer prevention 2015 Jun [Epub]
Young Sun Hwang, Paul F Lindholm
Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Seongnam, Korea , Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA