Histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis magnetic resonance imaging in differentiation of pathologic Gleason grade of prostate cancer.

OBJECTIVE - To investigate diagnostic performance of diffusion kurtosis imaging with histogram analysis for stratifying pathologic Gleason grade of prostate cancer (PCa).

METHODS - This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was waived. A total of 110 patients pathologically confirmed as having PCa (diameter>0.5cm) underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (b value of 0-2,100s/mm(2)) at 3T. Data were postprocessed by monoexponential and diffusion kurtosis models for quantitation of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), apparent diffusion for Gaussian distribution (Dapp), and apparent kurtosis coefficient (Kapp). The measurement was based on an entire-tumor histogram analysis approach. The ability of imaging indices for differentiating low-grade (LG) PCa (Gleason score [GS]≤6) from intermediate-/high-grade (HG: GS>6) PCa was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic regression.

RESULTS - There were 49 LG tumors and 77 HG tumors at pathologic findings. HG-PCa had significantly lower ADCs, lower diffusion kurtosis diffusivity (Dapp), and higher kurtosis coefficient (Kapp) in mean, median, 10th, and 90th percentile, with higher Dapp in skewness and kurtosis than LG-PCa (P< 0.05). The 10th ADCs, the 10th Dapp, and the 90th Kapp showed relatively higher area under receiver operating characteristic curve (Az), Youden index, and positive likelihood ratio in stratifying aggressiveness of PCa against other indices. The 90th Kapp showed relatively higher correlation (ρ>0.6) with ordinal GS of PCa; significantly higher Az, sensitivity, and specificity (0.889, 74.1%, and 93.9%, respectively) than the 10th Dapp did (0.765, 61.0%, and 79.6%, respectively; P<0.05); and higher Az and specificity than the 10th ADCs did (0.738 and 71.4%, respectively; P<0.05) in differentiating LG-PCa from HG-PCa.

CONCLUSIONS - It demonstrated a good reliability of histogram diffusion kurtosis imaging for stratifying pathologic GS of PCa. The 90th Kapp had better diagnostic performance in differentiating LG-PCa from HG-PCa.

Urol Oncol. 2015 Aug;33(8):337.e15-24. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.05.005. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

Wang Q1, Li H2, Yan X3, Wu CJ1, Liu XS1, Shi HB1, Zhang YD4.

1 Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
2 Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
3 MR Collaboration NE Asia, Siemens Healthcare, Shanghai, China.
4 Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.