Significance of preoperative butyrylcholinesterase as an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence-free survival in patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy.

BACKGROUND - Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an alpha-glycoprotein found in the nervous system and liver. Its serum level is reduced in many clinical conditions, such as liver damage, inflammation, injury, infection, malnutrition, and malignant disease. In this study, we analyzed the potential prognostic significance of preoperative BChE levels in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).

METHODS - We retrospectively evaluated 535 patients with PCa who underwent RP from 1996-2014 at a single institution. Serum BChE was routinely measured in all patients before operation. Covariates included age, preoperative laboratory data [prostate-specific antigen (PSA), hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, BChE, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein], clinical T, biopsy Gleason score, D'Amico risk classification, and RP with/without neoadjuvant therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS). Univariate analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods, and multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model.

RESULTS - The median BChE level was 255 U/L (normal range 168-470 U/L). The median age of the enrolled patients was 68 years, and the median PSA level at diagnosis of PCa was 8.39 ng/mL. The median follow-up period was 65 months. The 5-year BRFS rate was 72.9 %. The 5-year BRFS rates in the BChE ≥168 and ≤ 167 U/L groups were 77.7 and 55.0 %, respectively (P < 0.001). In univariate analysis, BChE, cT, biopsy Gleason score, and D'Amico risk classification were significantly associated with BRFS. Multivariate analysis revealed that BChE was significantly associated with BRFS.

CONCLUSIONS - This study validated preoperative serum BChE levels as an independent prognostic factor for PCa after RP.

Int J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jul 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Koie T1, Ohyama C, Hatakeyama S, Imai A, Yoneyama T, Hashimoto Y, Yoneyama T, Tobisawa Y, Hosogoe S, Yamamoto H, Kitayama M, Hirota K.

Department of Urology, Hirosaki University, Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifucho, Hirosaki, 036-8562, Japan