Analysis of Prostate Deformation during a Course of Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

PURPOSE - Accurate analysis of the correlation between deformation of the prostate and displacement of its center of gravity (CoG) is important for efficient radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In this study, we addressed this problem by introducing a new analysis approach.

METHODS - A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 7 repeat cone-beam CT scans during the course of treatment were obtained for 19 prostate cancer patients who underwent three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. A single observer contoured the prostate gland only. To evaluate the local deformation of the prostate, it was divided into 12 manually defined segments. Prostate deformation was calculated using in-house developed software. The correlation between the displacement of the CoG and the local deformation of the prostate was evaluated using multiple regression analysis.

RESULTS - The mean value and standard deviation (SD) of the prostate deformation were 0.6 mm and 1.7 mm, respectively. For the majority of the patients, the local SD of the deformation was slightly lager in the superior and inferior segments. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the anterior-posterior displacement of the CoG of the prostate had a highly significant correlation with the deformations in the middle-anterior (p < 0.01) and middle-posterior (p < 0.01) segments of the prostate surface (R2 = 0.84). However, there was no significant correlation between the displacement of the CoG and the deformation of the prostate surface in other segments.

CONCLUSIONS - Anterior-posterior displacement of the CoG of the prostate is highly correlated with deformation in its middle-anterior and posterior segments. In the radiation therapy for prostate cancer, it is necessary to optimize the internal margin for every position of the prostate measured using image-guided radiation therapy.

PLoS One. 2015 Jun 29;10(6):e0131822. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131822. eCollection 2015.

Nakazawa T1, Tateoka K2, Saito Y3, Abe T3, Yano M3, Yaegashi Y4, Narimatsu H4, Fujimoto K5, Nakata A3, Nakata K3, Someya M3, Hori M3, Hareyama M5, Sakata K3.

1 Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan; Department of Radiology, Kushiro City General Hospital, Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan.
2 Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan; Preparatory Office for Proton Therapy Center, Radiation Therapy Research Institute, Social Medical Corporation Teishinkai, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.
3 Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.
4 Department of Radiology, Kushiro City General Hospital, Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan.
5 Preparatory Office for Proton Therapy Center, Radiation Therapy Research Institute, Social Medical Corporation Teishinkai, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

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