BACKGROUND - Although men presenting with clinically localized prostate cancer (PrCA) often are treated with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy with curative intent, about 25-40% develop biochemically recurrent PrCA within 5 years of treatment, which has no known cure.
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Studies suggest that carotenoid and tocopherol intake may be associated with PrCA risk and progression. We examined plasma carotenoid and tocopherol levels in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among men with PSA-defined biochemical recurrence of PrCA.
METHODS - Data analyzed were from a 6-month diet, physical activity and stress-reduction intervention trial conducted in South Carolina among biochemically recurrent PrCA patients (n=39). Plasma carotenoids and tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Linear regression was used to estimate least-square means comparing PSA levels of men with high versus low carotenoid/tocopherol levels, adjusting for covariates.
RESULTS - After adjusting for baseline PSA level, plasma cis-lutein/zeaxanthin level at 3 months was related inversely to PSA level at 3 months (P=0.0008), while α-tocopherol (P=0.01), β-cryptoxanthin (P=0.01), and all-trans-lycopene (P=0.004) levels at 3 months were related inversely to PSA levels at 6-months. Percent increase in α-tocopherol and trans-β-carotene levels from baseline to month 3 were associated with lower PSA levels at 3 and 6 months. Percent increase in β-cryptoxanthin, cis-lutein/zeaxanthin and all-trans-lycopene were associated with lower PSA levels at 6 months only.
CONCLUSIONS - Certain plasma carotenoids and tocopherols were related inversely to PSA levels at various timepoints, suggesting that greater intake of foods containing these micronutrients might be beneficial to men with PSA-defined PrCA recurrence.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2015 Jul 9. pii: S1877-7821(15)00136-8. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.06.008. [Epub ahead of print]
Antwi SO1, Steck SE2, Zhang H3, Stumm L4, Zhang J5, Hurley TG6, Hebert JR6.
1 Division of Epidemiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, United States.
2 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Arnold School of Public Health, 915 Greene St, Columbia, SC 29208, United States; Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Arnold School of Public Health, 915 Greene St, Columbia, SC 29208, United States.
3 Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Environmental Health, University of Memphis, 3825 Desoto Avenue, 224 Robison Hall, Memphis, TN 38152, United States.
4 Epidemiology, James Madison University, 800 Madison Drive, Harrisonburg, VA 22807, United States.
5 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Arnold School of Public Health, 915 Greene St, Columbia, SC 29208, United States.
6 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Arnold School of Public Health, 915 Greene St, Columbia, SC 29208, United States; Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Arnold School of Public Health, 915 Greene St, Columbia, SC 29208, United States.