Optimal management of prostate cancer with lethal biology - state-of-the-art local therapy.

Defining prostate cancer with lethal biology based upon clinical criteria is challenging. Locally advanced/High-Grade prostate cancer can be downstaged or even downgraded with cure in up to 60% of patients with primary therapy.

[1] ,[2] ,[3] ,[4] ,[5]However, what is known is that high-grade prostate cancers have a greater potential for recurrence and progression to metastatic disease, which can ultimately result in a patient's death. Patients with clinical features of "high-risk" prostate cancer (cT2c, PSA >20, ≥ Gl 8 on biopsy) are more likely to harbor more aggressive pathologic findings. The optimal management of high-risk prostate cancer is not known as there are not prospective studies comparing surgery to radiation therapy (RT).

Retrospective and population-based studies are subject to many biases and attempts to compare surgery and radiation have demonstrated mixed results. Some show equivalent survival outcomes [6] while others showing an advantage of surgery over RT. [7] ,[8] ,[9] ,[10] ,[11] Local therapy for high-risk disease does appear to be beneficial. Improved outcomes realized with local therapy have been clearly demonstrated by several prospective studies evaluating androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone versus ADT plus RT.

The combination of local with systemic treatment showed improved disease-specific and overall survival outcomes. [12] ,[1314] Unfortunately, primary ADT for N0M0 prostate cancer is still inappropriately applied in general practice. [11] While the surgical literature is largely retrospective, it too demonstrates that surgery in the setting of high-risk prostate cancer is effective in providing durable disease-specific and overall survivals. [2] ,[3] ,[15].

Asian J Androl. 2015 Jun 30. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.156855. [Epub ahead of print]

Chapin BF1.

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.